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改变世界的10张照片

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照片不仅仅是人类某一时刻的影像记载,有时也在向世人传达重大信息的同时改变着整个世界,这就是照片的力量。陆军看到深深震撼住了!

10 Photographs That Changed the World

改变世界的10张照片

Photography can take us places, we’ve never been before, perhaps never dreamed of. There are some photographs that will make you stop and think. These 10 photographs stopped the world and people hold their breaths for a few seconds to take it all in.

  照片可以带我们去很多地方,可能是我们之前从没去过的地方,也许是连做梦都没想到的地方。有一些照片会让你停下来想一想。下面这10张照片则让整个世界停了下来,所有人在数秒之内都为之屏住呼吸、领会其奥妙。

The Photograph That Raised the Photojournalistic Stakes:

1. 一张体现了摄影报道风险的照片

“Omaha Beach, Normandy, France” Robert Capa, 1944

“法国.诺曼底.奥哈马海滩” —— 罗伯特·卡帕(Robert Capa),1944

译者注:点击此处了解更多这位伟大的战地记者

10-Photographs-That-Changed-the-World

“If your pictures aren’t good enough,” war photographer Robert Capa used to say, “you aren’t close enough.” Words to die by, yes, but the man knew of what he spoke. After all, his most memorable shots were taken on the morning of D-Day, June 6, 1944, when he landed alongside the first waves of infantry at Omaha Beach.

  “如果你的照片拍得不够好,”战地摄影记者罗伯特.卡帕曾经说过,“那是因为离炮火不够近。” 这话听起来像找死(译者注:卡帕于1954年在越南战场拍摄时误踩地雷而死,时年41岁),是的,但他明白自己在说什么。毕竟,他最难忘的镜头拍摄于诺曼底登陆日(1944年6月6日)的早晨,当时他与第一批步兵一起在奥马哈海滩登陆。

Caught under heavy fire, Capa dove for what little cover he could find, then shot all the film in his camera, and got out – just barely. He escaped with his life, but not much else. Of the four rolls of film Capa took of the horrific D-Day battle, all but 11 exposures were ruined by an overeager lab assistant, who melted the film in his rush to develop it. (He was trying to meet the deadline for the next issue of Life magazine.)

  在猛烈炮火之下,卡帕潜到了一个他能找到的小掩体后面,然后他拍光了相机里的所有胶卷,艰难地离开了战场。他保住了自己的命,但也仅此而已了。在可怕的诺曼底登陆战中,卡帕拍了四卷胶卷,不过除了11张以外,其余的都被急躁的助手在匆匆忙忙冲洗胶卷的时候毁掉了。(他是为了赶下一期生活杂志的截稿时间)

In an ironic twist, however, that same mistake gave the few surviving exposures their famously surreal look (”slightly out of focus,” Life incorrectly explained upon printing them). More than 50 years later, director Steven Spielberg would go to great lengths to reproduce the look of that “error” for his harrowing D-Day landing sequence in “Saving Private Ryan,” even stripping the coating from his camera lenses to echo Capa’s notorious shots.

  不过具有讽刺意味的是,同样的错误使得这些幸存的照片有了极好的超现实主义视觉效果(“稍微失焦”——生活杂志在出版时的错误解释)。 50多年后,导演史蒂芬.斯皮尔伯格(Steven Spielberg )在电影《拯救大兵瑞恩》中为了拍摄催人泪下的诺曼底登陆行动,竭尽全力地重现该“错误”,甚至去掉摄像机镜头的防水盖以达到卡帕那种“糟糕”的镜头效果。

The Photograph That Gave a Face to the Great Depression

2. 一张反映了大萧条时期的照片

“Migrant Mother” Dorothea Lange, 1936

“流浪中的母亲”——多罗西亚·兰格(Dorothea Lange),1936

migrant-mother

As era-defining photographs go, “Migrant Mother” pretty much takes the cake. For many, Florence Owens Thompson is the face of the Great Depression, thanks to legendary educated and apprenticed photojournalist Dorothea Lange. Lange captured the image while visiting a dusty California pea-pickers’ camp in February 1936, and in doing so, captured the resilience of a proud nation facing desperate times.

  就代表了一个时代的照片而言,“迁徙中的母亲” 无出其右。对于许多人来说,佛罗伦萨.欧文斯.汤普森这张脸很好地反映了大萧条时代,多谢传奇的刚接受培训的实习摄影记者多萝西娅.兰格。兰格在1936年2月访问美国加州一个尘土飞扬的豌豆采摘营地时抓拍了这张照片,她这样做,同时也抓拍下了一个自豪的民族面临危急时刻的应变能力。

Unbelievably, Thompson’s story is as compelling as her portrait. Just 32 years old when Lange approached her (”as if drawn by a magnet,” Lange said). Thompson was a mother of seven who’d lost her husband to tuberculosis. Stranded at a migratory labor farm in Nipomo, Calif. her family sustained themselves on birds killed by her kids and vegetables taken from a nearby field – as meager a living as any earned by the other 2,500 workers there. The photo’s impact was staggering. Reproduced in newspapers everywhere, Thompson’s haunted face triggered an immediate public outcry, quickly prompting politicos from the federal Resettlement Administration to send food and supplies. Sadly, however, Thompson and her family had already moved on, receiving nary a wedge of government cheese for their high-profile misery. In fact, no one knew the identity of the photographed woman until Thompson revealed herself years later in a 1976 newspaper article.

  令人难以置信的是,汤普森的故事和她的肖像照一样引人注目。当年兰格走近她时(“仿佛被磁铁吸引”,兰格说),她只有32岁。汤普森是七个孩子的母亲,她的丈夫死于肺结核,当时她滞留在加州尼波莫的一个迁徙劳工农场(译者注:这有一篇关于美国迁徙劳工的文章)。她的家庭靠孩子们打的鸟和从附近一片野地里挖的菜糊口度日——和那里其他2500名收入微薄的工人一样。照片的影响力是惊人的。各地的报纸都在转载,汤普森饱受折磨的脸立即引发舆论哗然,迅速促使美国联邦移民部门的政客们送去了食物和供给用品。然而可悲的是,汤普森和她的家人已经离开了那里,在他们备受瞩目的困境当中,连一块政府的奶酪也没得到。事实上,当时没人知道这名妇女的身份,直到多年以后,汤普森才在1976年的一篇报纸上的文章中揭示了自己的身份。

The Photograph That Brought the Battlefield Home

3. 一张把战场带回家的照片

“Federal Dead on the Field of Battle of First Day, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania” Mathew Brady, 1863

“第一天战斗时战场上的联邦阵亡士兵,葛底斯堡,宾夕法尼亚州” —— 马修·布雷迪(Mathew Brady),1863

brady-federal-dead-battle-gettysburg

As one of the world’s first war photographers, Mathew Brady didn’t start out having as action-packed a career as you might think. A successful daguerreotypist and a distinguished gentleman, Brady was known for his portraits of notable people such as Abraham Lincoln and Robert E. Lee. In other words, he was hardly a photojournalist in the trenches.

  作为世界上最早的战地摄影师之一,马修.布雷迪并不像你想象的那样有着充满惊心动魄的职业生涯。作为一个成功的银版相机摄影师和一位杰出的绅士,布雷迪是以给名人拍照而闻名于世的,比如亚伯拉罕.林肯和罗伯特.李。换句话说,他不是那种呆在战壕里的摄影师。

In fact, Brady had everything to lose by making a career move – his money, his business, and quite possibly his life. Nevertheless, he decided to risk it all and follow the Union Army into battle with his camera, saying, “A spirit in my feet said, ‘Go!’” And go he did – at least until he got a good look at the pointy end of a Confederate bayonet.

  事实上,布雷迪为了事业的发展宁愿失去一切——他的钱、他的生意、可能还包括他的命。不论怎样,他决定不顾一切风险,带着他的照相机跟随联邦军队进入战场,他说,“我脚中的精灵说,‘去吧!’”,然后他确实去了——至少等到了他看清了南方联邦的刺刀尖儿之后。

After narrowly escaping capture at the first Battle of Bull Run, Brady’s chatty feet quieted down a bit, and he began sending assistants in his place. In the span of only a few years, Brady and his team shot more than 7,000 photographs – an astounding number when you consider that developing a single plate required a horse-drawn-wagon-full of cumbersome equipment and noxious chemicals. Not exactly what you’d call “point-and-shoot.”

  在布尔渊的第一场战役中布雷迪差点被捕,他那“健谈的”脚安静了一些,然后他开始派助手代替自己去。在仅有的短短数年间,布兰迪和他的团队拍摄的照片超过了7000张——这是一个惊人的数字,你要知道,那时洗一张银版照片需要一马车的笨重设备和有毒化学品,不是你想的那种“对准即拍”。

Tethered as he was to his equine-powered darkroom and with film speeds being much slower then, Brady produced war photos that are understandably light on the action and heavy on the aftermath. Still, they mark the first time Americans were so immediately confronted with the grim realities of the battlefield.

  受到当时条件的约束——暗室靠马力来维持供电而且那时胶卷感光速度也慢得多,可以理解,布雷迪的战争照片是拍的时候容易、后期处理却很难。尽管如此,它们标志着美国人第一次能如此直接地面对战场的真正残酷。

The Photograph That Ended a War But Ruined a Life

4. 一张结束了一场战争却毁掉了一个人的生活的照片

“Murder of a Vietcong by Saigon Police Chief” Eddie Adams, 1968

“西贡警察局长枪杀一名越共分子” 艾迪·亚当斯(Eddie Adams),1968

murder-vietcong-saigon-police-chief-eddie-adams

“Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world,” AP photojournalist Eddie Adams once wrote. A fitting quote for Adams, because his 1968 photograph of an officer shooting a handcuffed prisoner in the head at point-blank range not only earned him a Pulitzer Prize in 1969, but also went a long way toward souring Americans’ attitudes about the Vietnam War.

  “照片依然是世界上最强大的武器,”美联社摄影记者艾迪·亚当斯曾这样写道。这是亚当斯一句极为恰当的名言,因为他在1968年拍摄的那张警官近距离地枪杀戴手铐犯人头部的照片,不仅为他赢得了1969年的普利策奖,也激起了美国人反越战的情绪。(译者注:更详细枪杀过程照片在此

For all the image’s political impact, though, the situation wasn’t as black-and-white as it’s rendered. What Adams’ photograph doesn’t reveal is that the man being shot was the captain of a Vietcong “revenge squad” that had executed dozens of unarmed civilians earlier the same day. Regardless, it instantly became an icon of the war’s savagery and made the official pulling the trigger – General Nguyen Ngoc Loan – its iconic villain.

  不过对于这张照片造成的全部政治影响而言,情况并不像照片本身那样黑白分明。亚当斯的照片并没有揭露该名被枪杀的男子是一个越共“复仇队”的头目,就在同一天早些时候该头目处死了数十名手无寸铁的平民。不管怎样,这张照片立即成为了战争残忍的标志,而且让这位扣动扳机的警官—— 阮玉湾将军——成了标志性的恶棍。

Sadly, the photograph’s legacy would haunt Loan for the rest of his life. Following the war, he was reviled where ever he went. After an Australian VA hospital refused to treat him, he was transferred to the United States, where he was met with a massive (though unsuccessful) campaign to deport him. He eventually settled in Virginia and opened a restaurant but was forced to close it down as soon as his past caught up with him. Vandals scrawled “we know who you are” on his walls, and business dried up.

  不幸的是,这张照片的影响如鬼魅般缠绕着阮的余生。战后,他走到哪儿被骂到哪儿。在一所澳大利亚退伍军人医院拒绝医治他之后,他被转移到了美国,在那里他遭遇到了一个大规模的(虽然没有成功)要将他驱逐出境的抗议活动。他最终定居在了弗吉尼亚州,开了一家饭馆,但是很快由于他的过去阴影不散而被迫关闭。墙壁上潦草地写着“我们知道你是谁”,生意也停顿了。

Adams felt so bad for Loan that he apologized for having taken the photo at all, admitting, “The general killed the Vietcong; I killed the general with my camera.”

  亚当斯对阮的遭遇感到抱歉,他为拍了这张照片向阮道歉:“将军杀了越共分子,而我却用相机杀了将军。”

The Photograph That Isn’t as Romantic as You Might Think

5. 一张并不是你想的那样浪漫的照片

“V-J Day, Times Square, 1945″, a.k.a. “The Kiss”Alfred Eisenstaedt, 1945

“太平洋战争胜利日,时代广场,1945” 也可以叫做 “吻” —— 阿尔弗莱德·艾森斯塔特,1945

v-j-day-kiss-eisenstaedt

On August 14, 1945, the news of Japan’s surrender was announced in the United States, signaling the end of World War II. Riotous celebrations erupted in the streets, but perhaps none were more relieved than those in uniform. Although many of them had recently returned from victory in Europe, they faced the prospect of having to ship out yet again, this time to the bloody Pacific.

  1945年8月14日,日本投降的消息在美国宣布,标志着第二次世界大战的结束。街头掀起了狂欢的庆典,但也许没有人能比那些穿着制服的军人、护士们更感到解脱。因为尽管他们中的许多人最近刚从欧洲战场的胜利中凯旋,他们却面临着不得不再次出航的命运——这一次是驶向血腥的太平洋。

Among the overjoyed masses gathered in Times Square that day was one of the most talented photojournalists of the 20th century, a German immigrant named Alfred Eisenstaedt. While snapping pictures of the celebration, he spotted a sailor “running along the street grabbing any and every girl in sight.” He later explained that, “whether she was a grandmother, stout, thin, old, didn’t make any difference.”

  当天在时代广场聚集的欣喜若狂的人群当中,有一个名为阿尔弗莱德·艾森斯塔特的德国移民,他是20世纪最有才华的摄影记者之一。在拍摄庆祝照片的时候,他发现了一个水手“沿着街道奔跑,抓住每一个看到的女孩。”他后来解释说,“不管她是一位老太太,胖的,瘦的,老的,都一样。 

Of course, a photo of the sailor planting a wet one on a senior citizen wouldn’t have made the cover of Life, but when he locked lips with an attractive nurse, the image was circulated in newspapers across the country. Needless to say, “V-J Day” didn’t capture a highly anticipated embrace by long-lost lovers, but it also wasn’t staged, as many critics have claimed. In any case, the image remains an enduring symbol of America’s exuberance at the end of a long struggle.

  当然,一张水手湿漉漉的手抓住一个老人的照片是不会作为生活杂志的封面的,但是当他亲吻一名漂亮的女护士时,这张照片就在全国各地的报纸上迅速传开了。不用说,“太平洋战争胜利日”拍的并不是所期望的失散多年的恋人的拥抱,但它也不是像许多批评家说的那样是刻意安排的。不论怎样,这张照片依然是在长期斗争结束时美国人热情奔放的永久象征。

The Photograph That Destroyed an Industry

6. 一张毁了一个行业的照片

“Hindenburg” Murray Becker, 1937

兴登堡飞艇” —— 默里.贝克尔,1937

hindenburg-murray-becker

Forget the Titanic, the Lusitania, and the comparatively unphotogenic accident at Chernobyl. Thanks to the power of images, the explosion of the Hindenburg on May 6, 1937, claims the dubious honor of being the quintessential disaster of the 20th century.

  忘掉泰坦尼克号路西塔尼亚号切尔诺贝利那些没有照片记录的灾难吧。多亏照片的力量,在1937年5月6日发生的兴登堡飞艇爆炸事故被冠以20世纪典型灾难这一有争议的称号。

In the grand scheme of things, however, the Hindenburg wasn’t all that disastrous. Of the 97 people aboard, a surprising 62 survived. (in fact, it wasn’t even the worst Zeppelin crash of the 20th century. Just four years earlier, the U.S.S. Akron had crashed into the Atlantic killing more than twice as many people.) But when calculating the epic status of a catastrophe, terrifying photographs and quotable quotes (”Oh, the humanity!”) far outweigh body counts.

  不过从整体上看,兴登堡事故并不是灾难性的。在艇上的97人中,出人意料地有62人存活。 (事实上,它甚至不是20世纪最严重的齐柏林硬式飞艇(译者注:第一次世界大战中德国使用的大型飞艇)坠毁事故。就在四年之前,美国轮船阿克伦号在大西洋沉没,遇难者人数比这两倍还多。)但是在评估一个灾难的史诗地位时,恐怖的照片和著名的名言(“哦,人类!”)的权重远远超过了遇难者人数。

Assembled as part of a massive PR campaign by the Hindenburg’s parent company in Germany, no fewer than 22 photographers, reporters, and newsreel cameramen were on the scene in Lakehurst, N.J. when the airship went down. Worldwide publicity of the well-documented disaster shattered the public’s faith in Zeppelins, which were, at the time, considered the safest mode of air travel available.

  作为兴登堡号在德国总公司的一个庞大商业活动的一部分,至少有22位摄影师、记者和纪录片摄影师被召集在新泽西州的莱克赫斯特现场,不料却发生了飞艇坠毁事故。全世界都见证了这一完整记录下来的灾难,粉碎了公众对齐柏林硬式飞艇的信心——在当时硬式飞艇被认为是可行的最安全空中旅行模式。

During the 1920s and 1930s, Zeppelins had operated regular flights, totting civilians back and forth between Germany and the Americas. But all of that stopped in 1937. The incident effectively killed the use of dirigibles as a commercially viable mode of passenger transport, ending the golden age of the airship not with a whimper, but with a horrific bang that was photographed and then syndicated around the globe.

  在20世纪20年代到30年代之间,硬式飞艇有着定期的航班在德国和美洲之间来回运输旅客,但所有这一切在1937年停止了。这一事故事实上终止了飞艇作为一种商业上可行的客运模式,不是通过小动静,而是通过照片传遍全世界的一声巨响,结束了飞艇的黄金时代。

The Photograph That Saved the Planet

7. 一张拯救了这个星球的照片

“The Tetons – Snake River” Ansel Adams, 1942

“Tetons-Snake河"——安塞尔·亚当斯(Ansel Adams),1942

the-tetons-snake-river-ansel-adams

Some claim photography can be divided into two eras: Before Adams and After Adams. In Times B.A., for instance, photography wasn’t widely considered an art form. Rather, photographers attempted to make their pictures more “artistic” (i.e., more like paintings) by subjecting their exposures to all sorts of extreme manipulations, from coating their lenses with petroleum jelly to scratching the surfaces of their negatives with needles. Then came Ansel Adams, helping shutterbugs everywhere get over their collective inferiority complex.

  有人说摄影可划分为两个时代:亚当斯之前和亚当斯之后。比如在亚当斯之前,摄影并没有被广泛认为是一种艺术形式。相反,摄影师们试图使用各种极端的手法使他们的照片更“艺术化”(也就是更像是绘画),比如在他们的镜头上涂上凡士林、用针刮擦底片的表面等。然后,安塞尔.亚当斯来了,帮助各地的摄影爱好者们克服了集体的自卑。

Brashly declaring photography to be “a blazing poetry of the real,” Adams eschewed manipulations, claiming they were simply derivative of other art forms. Instead, he preached the value of “pure photography.” In an era when handheld point-and-shoot cameras were quickly becoming the norm, Adams and other landscape photographers clung to their bulky, old-fashioned large-format cameras. Ultimately, Adams’ pictures turned photography into fine art. What’s more, they shaped the way Americans thought of their nation’s wilderness and, with that, how to preserve it.

  亚当斯充满激情地宣布摄影是“现实的一首燃烧着的诗歌”,他抵制那些“艺术化”的人工手法,声称它们简直是其它艺术形式的衍生物。相反,他大力宣扬“纯粹摄影”的价值。在那个手持傻瓜相机正在迅速普及的时代,亚当斯和其他风景摄影师们则坚持使用笨重的老式的大像幅相机。最终,亚当斯的照片把摄影变成了美的艺术。此外,这些照片也影响了美国人对国家野生环境和如何保护野生环境的看法。

Adams’ passion for the land wasn’t limited to vistas he framed through the lens. In 1936, he accompanied his photos to Washington to lobby for the preservation of the Kings Canyon area in California. Sure enough, he was successful, and it was declared a national park.

  亚当斯对大地的热爱并不限于通过镜头拍拍照片。 1936年,他带着他的照片到华盛顿游说支持加州国王峡谷地区的保护法案。果然,他成功了,它被宣布为国家公园。

The Photograph That Kept Che Alive

8. 一张使格瓦拉永生的照片

“The Corpse of Che Guevara” Freddy Alborta, 1967

“切.格瓦拉的尸体”——弗雷迪.阿尔博塔,1967

che-corpse-freddy-alborta

Sociopathic thug? Socialist luminary? Or as existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre called him, “the most complete human being of our age”? Whatever you believe, there’s no denying that Ernesto “Che” Guevara has become the patron saint of revolutionaries. Undeniably, he is a man of mythical status – a reputation that persists less because of how he lived than because of how he died.

  反社会的暴徒?社会主义的灵魂人物?或者,正如存在主义者让·保罗·萨特称他为“我们这个时代最完整的人”?不管你相信与否,无可争辩,埃内斯托.切.格瓦拉已成为革命者的守护神。不可否认,他是一个神话般的人物 —— 他的声誉永存,不是因为他是如何活的而是因为他是如何死的。

Unenthused by his efforts to incite revolution among the poor and oppressed in Bolivia, the nation’s army (trained and equipped by the U.S. military and the CIA) captured and executed Guevara in 1967. But before dumping his body in a secret grave, they gathered around for a strategic photo op. They wanted to prove to the world that Che was dead, in hopes that his political movement would die with him. in fact, anticipating charges that the photo had been faked, Che’s thoughtful captors amputated his hands and preserved them in formaldehyde.

  由于格瓦拉不遗余力地在玻利维亚发起穷人和被压迫者的革命,在1967年,玻利维亚国家军队(由美国军方和中央情报局培训和武装)逮捕并处决了格瓦拉。但在把格瓦拉尸体埋进一个秘密坟墓之前,他们聚集在尸体四周,拍了上面这张有目的性的照片。他们想向世界证明格瓦拉已经死了,希望他的政治运动与他一起消亡。事实上,为了避免这张照片被说成是伪造的,这些逮捕格瓦拉的人考虑周密,砍下了格瓦拉的双手并将它们保存在了甲醛里。

But by killing the man, Bolivian officials unwittingly birthed his legend. The photo, which circulated around the world, bore a striking resemblance to Renaissance paintings of Christ taken down from the cross. Even as Che’s killers preened and gloated above him (the officer on the right seems to be inadvertently pointing to a wound on Guevara’s body near where Christ’s final wound was inflicted), Che’s eerily peaceful face was described as showing forgiveness. The photo’s allegorical significance certainly wasn’t lost on the revolutionary protesters of the era. They quickly adopted “Che lives!” as a slogan and rallying cry. Thanks to this photograph, “the passion of the Che” ensured that he would live on forever as a martyr for the socialist cause.

  然而玻利维亚官员杀死了格瓦拉,却无意中诞生了他的传奇。这张照片在世界各地流传,神似文艺复兴时期耶稣从十字架上放下来的画像。就在那些杀死他的刽子手们洋洋得意、幸灾乐祸围观的时候(右边的官员似乎是不经意地指着一处格瓦拉身上遭受的致命伤口),格瓦拉安详的脸被形容为显示了宽恕。照片的象征意义在这个时代的革命者当中当然没有失去。他们很快就喊出了“格瓦拉万岁!”作为标语和战斗口号。多亏这张照片,“格瓦拉精神”让他作为社会主义事业的烈士而永生。

The Photograph that Allowed Geniuses to Have a Sense of Humor

9. 一张允许天才也有幽默感的照片

“Einstein with his Tongue Out” Arthur Sasse, 1951

“吐舌头的爱因斯坦”——阿瑟.萨瑟(Arthur Sasse),1951

einstein-tongue-out

You may appreciate this memorable portrait as much as the next fellow, but it’s still fair to wonder: “Did it really change history?” Rest assured, we think it did. While Einstein certainly changed history with his contributions to nuclear physics and quantum mechanics, this photo changed the way history looked at Einstein. By humanizing a man known chiefly for his brilliance, this image is the reason Einstein’s name has become synonymous not only with “genius,” but also with “wacky genius.”

  你可能和下个家伙一样很欣赏这幅难忘的画像,但是仍然会有这样的疑问:“它真的改变了历史?”。放心吧,我们认为它的确做到了。在爱因斯坦通过他对核物理和量子力学的贡献改变历史的同时,这张照片也改变了历史上对爱因斯坦的看法。这张照片赋予了一个主要以才智著称的人以人情味,这使得爱因斯坦的名字不仅成为“天才”的代名词,也成为了“怪才”的代名词。

So why the history-making tongue? It seems Professor Einstein, hoping to enjoy his 72nd birthday in peace, was stuck on the Princeton campus enduring incessant hounding by the press. Upon being prodded to smile for the camera for what seemed like the millionth time, he gave photographer Arthur Sasse a good look at his uvula instead. This being no ordinary tongue, the resulting photo became an instant classic, thus ensuring that the distinguished Nobel Prize-winner would be remembered as much for his personality as for his brain.

  那么,这一创造历史的舌头是怎么回事?似乎是爱因斯坦教授被普林斯顿校园里的记者们纠缠不休,所以他希望能够安静地度过自己72岁的生日。摄影师想让他对着相机笑一笑,哪怕百万分之一秒,爱因斯坦却给了阿瑟.萨瑟一副吐舌头的好表情。这是不平凡的舌头,由此产生的照片变成了一个经典的瞬间,从而使得这位杰出的诺贝尔奖得主的个人魅力像他的大脑一样被人记住。

The Photograph That Made the Surreal Real

10. 一张创造了“超现实的现实”的照片

“Dalí Atomicus” Philippe Halsman, 1948

“达利原子”——菲利普·哈尔斯曼,1948

dali-atomicus

Philippe Halsman is quite possibly the only photographer to have made a career out of taking portraits of people jumping. But he claimed the act of leaping revealed his subjects’ true selves, and looking at his most famous jump, “Dalí Atomicus,” it’s pretty hard to disagree.

  菲利普·哈尔斯曼很可能是唯一的一位通过拍摄人物跳跃而创造了一番事业的摄影师。不过他声称这一跳跃的动作展示了生活中真实的一面,看着他这最出名的一跳——“达利原子”,很难不同意这一说法。

The photograph is Halsman’s homage both to the new atomic age (prompted by physicist’ then-recent announcement that all matter hangs in a constant state of suspension) and to Dalí’s surrealist masterpiece “Leda Atomica” (seen on the right, behind the cats, and unfinished at the time). It took six hours, 28 jumps, and a roomful of assistants throwing angry cats and buckets of water into the air to get the perfect exposure.

  这张照片是哈尔斯曼同时向新的原子时代(物理学家在当时刚宣布所有的物质以一种恒定状态悬浮和达利(译者注:西班牙超现实主义画家)的超现实主义杰作“丽达原子”(看右边,在猫的后边,当时还未完成译者注:是一幅美女斯巴达王后Leda被化为天鹅的宇斯ooxx的故事画呵呵)致敬的作品。拍这张照片花了六个小时,跳了28次,还有一屋子的助手向空中扔那些愤怒的猫和装满水的水桶以获得完美的曝光。

But before settling on the “Atomicus” we know today, Halsman rejected a number of other concepts for the shot. One was the idea of throwing milk instead of water, but that was abandoned for fear that viewers, fresh from the privations of World War II, would condemn it as a waste of milk. Another involved exploding a cat in order to capture it “in suspension,” though that arguably would have been a waste of cats.

  但是今天我们知道,在选定“原子”之前,哈尔斯曼为这个镜头抛弃了其它的一些想法。其中之一是扔牛奶而不是水的想法,但被放弃了,因为担心观众刚刚从第二次世界大战的物资匮乏中摆脱出来,会谴责扔牛奶是种浪费。另一个想法是炸死一只猫,以便捕捉到它“悬浮”的情景,尽管这无疑将是对猫的滥杀无辜。

Halsman’s methods were as unique as they were effective. His celebrity “jump” portraits appeared on at least seven Life magazine covers and helped usher in a new – and radically more adventurous – era of portrait photography.

  哈尔斯曼的方法不仅独特而且有效。他著名的“跳”的肖像照片至少出现在了七本生活杂志的封面,并帮助迎来了一个新的——而且从根本上更大胆的——肖像摄影时代。